MMA (MASTITIS – METRITIS – AGALACTIA)
The last issue we were talked about what to do when sows are farrowing problems. This issue we will talk about “MMA (Mastitis-inflammation of mammary glands, Metritis-inflammation of the uterus and Agalactia-lack of milk flow)”. The death losses from affected sows are low, but the losses in piglets are high (15-30%) due to starvation, hypoglycemia and overlying by sows. MMA is often followed by prolonged farrowing process.
MMA (Mastitis – Metritis – Agalactia)
There are 3 groups of MMA in sows:
– Coliform mastitis.
– Staphylococcal and Streptococcal mastitis.
– Management induced mastitis.
• Coliform mastitis
– E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp.
– Bacteria release endotoxin results in reduce milk production.
– Sows will get sick and piglets have diarrhea.
– Always occur in PRRS unstable herd.
– Contaminate sources are sow feces, dirty floor, contaminated feed and water.
– Dark blue surrounding the affected udder, severe udder edema and udder skin congestion.
– Caudal udders are more affected than cranial udders.
– Hematological findings are decrease hemoglobin concentration, decrease in serum calcium, magnesium and glucose and increase in phosphorus concentration.
Picture1-2 Severe udder edema and skin congestion.
• Staphylococcal and Streptococcal mastitis
– Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp.
– Less acute & severe than coliform mastitis.
– Do not make sows ill.
– 1 or 2 mammary glands will be affected (swollen, hard, discolored).
– Contaminate source is from her own skin.
– Shower & disinfectant gestating sows before move to farrowing house help to reduce mastitis causes by Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacteria.
• Management induced mastitis
– Vitamin E and Selenium deficiency.
– Vitamin B12 deficiency.
– Overfeeding gestating sow.
– Low fiber in gestation and lactation feed cause constipation.
– Feeding exceed protein the sow.
– Ca:P imbalance in gestation and lactation feed.
– Chronic heat stress before farrowing.
– Short acclimation period before farrowing.
Picture3: Agalactia symptom.
Management Control and Prevention
– Clean, disinfect and dry farrowing crate at least 5 days before move in pre-farrowing sows.
– Disinfectant and move pre-farrowing sows to farrowing house 5-7 days before due date.
– Feed pre-farrowing sows with pre-farrowing diet (low energy, high fiber, low Ca and adding antibiotics).
Use gestation feed 2 kg+rice bran 1 kg+antibiotics (total 3 kg/day)
– Feed them until 3 days post-farrowed then change to lactation feed.
– Add clean and fresh water into dry feed help to improve feed intake and reduce constipation.
– Improve ventilation and temperature in farrowing houses.
Preventive medication program for sows
It is very important that mastitis is diagnosed early and that prompt treatment is given. I would strongly recommend to implementing preventive medicine program as above to minimize MMA symptoms in your farm. See you again in the next issue. Thank you.
Author: Dr. Paiboon Sungnak, D.V.M.
InterCons 3P Co., Ltd.