PRDC: A challenge for Pig Farm (Part 1)
What is PRDC?
• Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex (PRDC) is multi-factorial disease challenges and environmental stressors, mainly effect to the lung.
• Synergistic and additive effects from concurrent infections with virus and bacteria in farm.
• Affecting the health of the pig and resulting in reduced performance, increased medication costs and increased mortality.
• Typically 30-70% of pigs will be affected, with a mortality rate of 4 to 6 per cent, or more depending on the secondary infections.
• Always initiated by:
– Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS).
– Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh).
– Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2).
– Swine Influenza virus (SIV).
– Aujeszky’s virus (ADv).
• Compounded by opportunistic bacteria
– Pasteurella multocida (Pm).
– Streptococcus suis (Ss).
– Heamophilus parasuis (Hp).
– Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App).
– Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb).
– Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.
– E. coli.
– Salmonella species.
Economic losses from PRDC
• High mortality & culls: Less pigs to sell.
• Poor feed conversion ratio (FCR): Use more feed.
• Reduced average daily gain (ADG): Take more days to reach market weight.
• Calculated the financial cost associated with PRDC /pigs:
– $0.63 USD with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh).
– $5.57 USD with PRRSv.
– $3.23 USD with Influenza A virus (IAV).
• Losses due to combining pathogens:
– $9.69 USD: PRRSv+Mh.
– $10.41 USD: PRRSv+IAV.
– $10.12 USD: IAV+Mh.
What are the symptoms of PRRS and PRDC?
• Sows: PRRS related symptoms
– Low farrowing rate
+ High repeat service.
+ High abortion.
+ High early farrowing (90-107 days).
– High stillborn & mummified & weak piglets.
– High pre-weaning mortality.
– Decreased weaning weight.
• Nursery & Grower & Finisher pigs:
PRDC related symptoms (4-16 weeks old)
– High mortality & culls
+ Secondary bacterial infections.
– Increase number of un-healthy pigs.
– Low average daily gain (ADG), High feed conversion ratio (FCR), High feed cost/KG gain (FCG)
+ High cost of production (per kg).
Un-healthy pig means:
• High fever
• Hairy coat & gaunt appearance
• Abdominal breathing
• Eyelid edema
• Swollen joints
• Skin lesion
• Ear necrosis
Major predisposing factors that lead to PRDC problem
• Un-stable sow immunity.
• Unsuitable medication program both in sows and piglets.
• Inadequate vaccine protocol both in sows and piglets.
• Mycotoxins contamination.
• Inadequate basic management protocol.
PRRS-Unstable sow immunity
Currently PRRSv & Co-infections prevention and control program
• Needs proper disease diagnosis, necessary to develop a comprehensive prevention protocol.
• Requires a multi-solution approach: antibiotics, vaccines, feed quality, management practices.
• Need interventions for both bacterial and viral components.
• Antibiotics are resources in limiting bacterial diseases.
• Need products that designed exclusively for animal use only.
• Low resistant profiles.
• Reasonable price.
• Prefer preventive medicine protocol for:
– Sow (gestating and lactating sows).
– Piglet (Born-Wean).
– Nursery pig.
– Starter-Grower pig.
Sow (gestating and lactating sows)
Antibiotics program recommended for five critical days in sows
5-7 days prior farrowing: Oxytetracycline LA.
1-2 days prior farrowing: Amoxycillin and Gentamicin.
At farrowing day: Ceftiofur and Paracetamol+Dichlofenac.
1 days after farrowed: Ceftiofur and Paracetamol+Dichlofenac.
At weaning day: ADE 3.
For this issue we’re already know about what is PRDC, how important they are and how can we protect our sow from PRDC problem to improve growth performance and sow reproductive performance, farmers are advised to understand the impact of PRDC and PRRS. The highlight of next issue is how to manage our piglet to finisher pig avoid from the PRDC problem, See you once again. Thank you.
Author: Dr. Paiboon Sungnak, D.V.M.